20 Hartford Rd #34,

Salem, CT 06420


Orthodontic Dentistry Services in Salem, Connecticut

Orthodontics is a dentistry specialty that addresses the diagnosis, prevention, management, and correction of mal-positioned teeth and jaws, as well as misaligned bite patterns.[2] It may also address the modification of facial growth, known as dentofacial orthopedics.Orthodonticsis a dentistry specialty that addresses the diagnosis, prevention, management, and correction of mal-positioned teeth and jaws, as well as misaligned bite patterns.[2] It may also address the modification of facial growth, known as dentofacial orthopedics.

Abnormal alignment of the teeth and jaws is very common. Nearly 50% of the developed world’s population, according to the American Association of Orthodontics, has malocclusions severe enough to benefit from orthodontic treatment, although this figure decreases to less than 10% according to the same AAO statement when referring to medically necessary orthodontics. However, conclusive scientific evidence for the health benefits of orthodontic treatment is lacking, although patients with completed treatment have reported a higher quality of life than that of untreated patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The main reason for the prevalence of these malocclusions are diets with less fresh fruit and vegetables and overall softer foods in childhood, causing smaller jaws, with less room for the teeth to erupt. Treatment may require several months to a few years and entails using dental braces and other appliances to gradually adjust tooth position and jaw alignment. In cases where the malocclusion is severe, jaw surgery may be incorporated into the treatment plan. Treatment usually begins before a person reaches adulthood, insofar as pre-adult bones may be adjusted more easily before adulthood.

Evolution of the current orthodontic appliances

When it comes to orthodontic appliances, they are divided into two types – Removable and Fixed. Take the removable type for instance, these can be taken on and off by the patient as required. On the other hand, fixed appliances cannot be taken off as they remain bonded to the teeth during treatment.

Fixed appliances

Fixed orthodontic appliances are predominantly derived from the edgewise appliance approach, which typically begins with round wires before transitioning to rectangular archwires for improving tooth alignment. These rectangluar wires promote precision in the positioning of teeth following initial treatment.In contrast to the Begg appliance, which was based solely around round wires and auxiliary springs, the Tip-Edge system emerged in the early 21st century. This innovative technology allowed for the utilization of rectangular archwires to precisely control tooth movement during finishing stages after initial treatment with round wires. Thus, almost all modern fixed appliances can be considered variations on this edgewise appliance system.

Early 20th century orthodontist Edward Angle made a major contribution to the world of dentistry. He created four distinct appliance systems that have been used as the basis for many orthodontic treatments today, barring a few exceptions. They are E-arch, Pin and tube, Ribbon arch and Edgewise systems.


Edward H. Angle made a significant contribution to the dental field when he released the 7th edition of his book back 1907, which outlined his theories and detailed his technique. This approach was founded upon the iconic “E- Arch” or ‘the-arch’ shape as well as inter-maxillary elastics.This device was different from any other appliance of its period as it featured a rigid framework to which teeth could be tied effectively in order to recreate an arch form that followed pre-defined dimensions.Molars were fitted with braces and a powerful labial archwire was positioned around the arch. The wire ended in a thread and to move it forward an adjustable nut was used, which allowed for an increase in circumference. By ligation, each individual tooth was attached to this expansive archwire.

Pin and Tube appliance

Due to its limited range of motion, Angle was unable to achieve precise tooth positioning with an E-arch. In order to bypass this issue, he started using bands on other teeth combined with a vertical tube for each individual tooth. These tubes held a soldered pin which could be repositioned at each appointment in order to move them in place. Dubbed the “bone growing appliance”, this contraption was theorized to encourage healthier bone growth, due to its potential for transferring force directly to the roots. However, implementing it proved troublesome in reality.

Ribbon Arch

Realizing that the Pin and Tube appliance was not easy to control, Angle developed a better option, the Ribbon Arch, which was much simpler to use. Most of its components were already prepared by the manufacturer, so it was significantly easier to manage than before. In order to attach the ribbon arch, the occlusal area of the bracket was opened. Brackets were only added to eight incisors and mandibular canines, as it would be impossible to insert the arch into both horizontal molar tubes and the vertical brackets of adjacent premolars. This lack of understanding posed a considerable challenge to dental professionals; they were unable to make corrections to an excessive Spee curve in bicuspid teeth. Despite the complexity of the situation, it was necessary for practitioners to find a resolution. Unparalleled to its counterparts, what made the ribbon arch instantly popular was that its archwire had remarkable spring qualities and could be utilized to accurately align teeth that were misaligned. However, a major drawback of this device was its inability to effectively control root position since it did not have enough resilience to generate the torque movements required for setting roots in their new place.

Edgewise Appliance

In an effort rectify the issues with the ribbon arch, Angle shifted the orientation of its slot from vertical, instead making it horizontal. In addition, he swapped out the wire and replaced it with a precious metal wire that was rotated by 90 degrees in relation – henceforth known as Edgewise. Following extensive trials, it was concluded that dimensions of 22 × 28 mils were optimal for obtaining excellent control over crown and root positioning across all three planes of space. After debuting in 1928, this appliance quickly become one of the mainstays for multibanded fixed therapy; although ribbon arches continued being utilized for another decade or so beyond this point too.


Prior to Angle, the idea of fitting attachments on individual teeth had not been thought of; and in his lifetime, his concern for precisely positioning each tooth was not highly appraised. In addition to using fingersprings for repositioning teeth with a range of removable devices, two main appliance systems were very popular in the initial part of the 20th century. Labiolingual appliances used bands on first molars joined with heavy lingual and labial archwires affixed with soldered fingersprings to shift single teeth.

Twin wire

Utilizing bands around both incisors and molars, a twin-wire appliance was designed to provide alignment of these teeth. Constructed with two 10-mil steel archwires, its delicate features were safeguarded by lengthy tubes stretching from molars towards canines. Despite its efforts, it had limited capacity for movement without further modifications – rendering it obsolete in modern orthodontic practice.

Begg’s Appliance

Returning to Australia in the 1920s, the renowned orthodontist, Raymond Begg, applied his knowledge of ribbon arch appliances, which he had learnt from the Angle school. On top of this, Begg recognised that extracting teeth was sometimes vital for successful outcomes and sought to modify the ribbon arch appliance to provide more control when dealing with root positioning. In the late 1930s, Begg developed his adaptation of the appliance which took three forms. Firstly, a high-strength 16-mil round stainless steel wire replaced the original precious metal ribbon arch. Secondly, he kept the same ribbon arch bracket but inverted it so that it pointed toward the gums instead of away from them. Lastly, auxiliary springs were added to control root movement. This resulted in what would come to be known as the Begg Appliance (Fig 10.19).5 With this design friction was decreased since contact between wire and bracket was minimal, and binding minimized due to tipping and uprighting being used for anchorage control (see Fig 8.26), which lessened contact angles between wires and corners of bracket

Tip Edge System

Dr. Begg’s influence is still seen in modern appliances, such as Tip-Edge brackets. This type of bracket incorporates a rectangular slot cutaway on one side to allow for crown tipping with no incisal deflection of an archwire; allowing teeth to be tipped during space closure and then uprighted through auxiliary springs or even a rectangular wire for torque purposes in finishing. At initial stages of treatment, small-diameter steel archwires should be used when working with Tip-Edge brackets.

Contemporary Edgewise systems

Throughout time, there has been a shift in which appliance is favored by dentists. In particular, during 1960s, when it was introduced, Begg appliance gained wide popularity due to its efficiency compared to edgewise appliance of that era; it could produce same results with less investment from dentist’s part. Nevertheless, since then there have been advances in technology and sophistication of edgewise appliances which led to an opposite conclusion: nowadays, edgewise is more efficient than Begg appliance thus explaining why it is commonly used.

Automatic rotational control

At the beginning, Angle attached eyelets to the edges of archwires so that they could be held with ligatures and help manage rotations. Now, however, no extra ligature is needed due to either twin brackets or single brackets that have added wings touching underneath the wire (Lewis or Lang brackets). Both types of brackets simplify obtaining moments that control movements along a particular plane of space.

Alteration in bracket slot dimensions

In modern dentistry, two types of edgewise appliance exist: the 18- and 22-slot varieties. While these appliances are used differently, the introduction of a 20-slot device with more precise features has been considered but not pursued yet.

Straight-wire bracket prescriptions

Rather than rely on the same bracket for all teeth, L.F. Andrews found a way to make different brackets for each tooth in the 1980s, thanks to the increased convenience of bonding.This adjustment enabled him to avoid having multiple bends in archwires that would have been needed to make up for variations in tooth anatomy. Ultimately, this led to what was termed as “straight-wire appliance” system – an edgewise appliance which greatly enhanced its efficiency.The modern edgewise appliance has slightly different construction than the original one. Instead of relying on faciolingual bends to accommodate variations among teeth, each bracket has a correspondingly varying base thickness depending on the tooth it is intended for. However, due to individual differences between teeth, this does not completely eliminate the need for compensating bends. Accurately placing the roots of many teeth requires angling brackets in relation to the long axis of the tooth. Traditionally, this mesiodistal root positioning necessitated using second-order, or tip, bends along the archwire. However, angling the bracket or bracket slot eliminates this need for bends.

Given the discrepancies in inclination of facial surfaces across individual teeth, placing a twist, otherwise known as third-order or torque bends, into segments of each rectangular archwire was initially required with the edgewise appliance. These bends were necessary for all patients and wires, not just to avoid any unintentional movement of suitably placed teeth or when moving roots facially or lingually. Angulation of either brackets or slots can minimize the need for second-order or tip bends on archwires. Contemporary edgewise appliances come with brackets designed to adjust for any facial inclinations, thereby eliminating or reducing any third-order bends. These brackets already have angulation and torque values built in so that each rectangluar archwire can be contorted to form a custom fit without inadvertently shifting any correctly positioned teeth. Without bracket angulation and torque, second-order or tip bends would still be required on each patient’s archwire.


A typical treatment for incorrectly positioned teeth (malocclusion) takes from one to two years, with braces being adjusted every four to 10 weeks by orthodontists,while university-trained dental specialists versed in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. Orthodontists offer a wide range of treatment options to straighten crooked teeth, fix irregular bites, and align the jaws correctly. There are many ways to adjust malocclusion. In growing patients there are more options to treat skeletal discrepancies, either by promoting or restricting growth using functional appliances, orthodontic headgear or a reverse pull facemask. Most orthodontic work begins in the early permanent dentition stage before skeletal growth is completed. If skeletal growth has completed, jaw surgery is an option. Sometimes teeth are extracted to aid the orthodontic treatment (teeth are extracted in about half of all the cases, most commonly the premolars).

Orthodontic therapy may include using fixed or removable appliances. Most orthodontic therapy is delivered using appliances that are fixed in place,for example, with braces that are adhesively bonded to the teeth. Fixed appliances may provide greater mechanical control of the teeth; optimal treatment outcome is improved by using fixed appliances.

Fixed appliances may be used, for example, to rotate teeth if that do not fit the arch shape of the other teeth in the mouth, to adjust multiple teeth to different places, to change tooth angle of teeth, or to change the position of a tooth’s root. This treatment course is not preferred where a patient has poor oral hygiene, (as decalcification, tooth decay or other complications may result. If a patient is unmotivated (insofar as treatment takes several months and requires commitment to oral hygiene), or if malocclusions are mild.

Biology of tooth movement and how advances in gene therapy and molecular biology technology may shape the future of orthodontic treatment.


Braces are usually placed on the front side of the teeth, but they may also be placed on the side facing the tongue (called lingual braces). Brackets made out of stainless steel or porcelain are bonded to the center of the teeth using an adhesive. Wires are placed in a slot in the brackets which allows for controlled movement in all three dimensions.

Apart from wires, forces can be applied using elastic bands,and springs may be used to push teeth apart or to close a gap. Several teeth may be tied together with ligatures and different kinds of hooks can be placed to allow for connecting an elastic band.

Clear aligners are an alternative to braces, but insufficient evidence exists to determine their effectiveness.

Treatment duration

The time required for braces varies from person to person as it depends on the severity of the problem, the amount of room available, the distance the teeth must travel, the health of the teeth, gums, and supporting bone, and how closely the patient follows instructions. On average, however, once the braces are put on, they usually remain in place for one to three years. After braces are removed, most patients will need to wear a retainer all the time for the first six months, then only during sleep for many years.


Orthodontic headgear—sometimes referred to as an “extra-oral appliance”—is a treatment approach that requires the patient to have a device strapped onto their head to help correct malocclusion—typically used when the teeth do not align properly. Headgear is most often used along with braces or other orthodontic appliances. While braces correct the position of teeth, orthodontic headgear—which as the name suggests is worn on or is strapped onto the patient’s head—is most often added to orthodontic treatment to help alter the alignment of the jaw, although there are some situations in which such an appliance can help move teeth, particularly molars.

Whatever the purpose, orthodontic headgear works by exerting tension on the braces via hooks, a facebow, coils, elastic bands, metal orthodontic bands, and other attachable appliances directly into the patient’s mouth. It is most effective for children and teenagers because their jaws are still developing and can be easily manipulated. (If an adult is fitted with headgear, it is usually to help correct the position of teeth that have shifted after other teeth have been extracted.) Thus, headgear is typically used to treat a number of jaw alignment or bite problems such as overbite and underbite.

Palatal expansion

Palatal expansion can be best achieved using a fixed tissue born appliance. Removable appliances can push teeth outwards but is less effective at maxillary sutural expansion. The effects of a removable expander may look the same as they push teeth outwards but should not be confused with actually expanding the palate. Proper palate expansion can create more space for teeth as well as improve both oral and nasal airflow.

Jaw surgery

Jaw surgery may be required to fix severe malocclusions. The bone is broken during surgery and is stabilized with titanium (or bioresorbable) plates and screws to allow for healing to take place. After surgery, regular orthodontic treatment is used to move the teeth into their final position.

During treatment

To reduce pain during the orthodontic treatment, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), vibratory devices, chewing adjuncts, brainwave music, or cognitive behavioral therapy can be used. However, the supporting evidence is of low quality, and the results are inconclusive.

Post treatment

After orthodontic treatment has completed, there is a tendency for teeth to return, or relapse, back to their pre-treatment positions. Over 50% of patients have some reversion to pre-treatment positions within 10 years following treatment. To prevent relapse, the majority of patients will be offered a retainer once treatment has completed and will benefit from wearing their retainers. Retainers can be either fixed or removable.

Removable retainers

Removable retainers are made from a clear plastic, and they are custom-fitted for the patient’s mouth. It has a tight fit and holds all of the teeth in position. There are many types of brands for clear retainers including Zendura Retainer, Essix Retainer, and Vivera Retainer. Hawley retainer is also a removable orthodontic appliance made from a combination of plastic and metal that is molded custom to fit the patient’s mouth. Removable retainers will be worn for different periods of time depending on patient need to stabilise the dentition.

Fixed retainers

Fixed retainers are a simple wire fixed to the tongue-facing part of the incisors using dental adhesive and can be specifically useful to prevent rotation in incisors. Other types of fixed retainers can include labial or lingual braces, with brackets fixed to the teeth.

  • Palatal expander
  • Orthodontic headgear
  • An X-ray taken for skull analysis
  • Top (left) and bottom retainers

Clear Aligners

Clear aligners are another form of orthodontics commonly used today, involving removable plastic trays. There has been controversy about the effectiveness of aligners such as Invisalign or Byte, some consider them to be faster and more freeing than the alternative.